Rochester Institute of Technology Personality traits and scales used to measure traits are numerous and commonality amongst the traits and scales is often difficult to obtain. To curb the confusion, many personality psychologists have attempted to develop a common taxonomy.
History and development[ edit ] Cattell physical sciences background[ edit ] The 16PF Questionnaire was created from a fairly unusual perspective among personality tests.
Most personality tests are developed to measure just the pre-conceived traits that are of interest to a particular theorist or researcher. The main author of the 16PF, Raymond B.
Cattellhad a strong background in the physical sciences, especially chemistry and physics, at a time when the basic elements of the physical world were being discovered, placed in the periodic table, and used as the basis for understanding the fundamental nature of the physical world and for further inquiry.
From this background in the physical sciences, Cattell developed the belief that all fields are best understood by first seeking to find the fundamental underlying elements in that domain, and then developing a valid way to measure and research these elements Cattell, He found that most personality theories were based on philosophy and on personal conjecture, or were developed by medical professionals, such as Jean Charcot and Sigmund Freud, who relied on their personal intuition to reconstruct what they felt was going on inside people, based on observing individuals with serious psycho-pathological problems.
Cattell  described the concerns he felt as a scientist: Scientific advance hinges on the introduction of measurement to the field under investigation….
Psychology has bypassed the necessary descriptive, taxonomic, and metric stages through which all healthy sciences first must pass….
If Aristotle and other philosophers could get no further by sheer power of reasoning in two thousand years of observation, it is unlikely that we shall do so now For psychology to take its place as an effective science, we must become less concerned with grandiose theory than with establishing, through research, certain basic laws of relationship.
At the University of London, Cattell worked with Charles Spearman who was developing factor analysis to aid in his quest to discover the basic factors of human ability.
Cattell thought that could also be applied to the area of personality. He reasoned that human personality must have basic, underlying, universal dimensions just as the physical world had basic building blocks like oxygen and hydrogen.
He felt that if the basic building blocks of personality were discovered and measured, then human behavior e. Allport and Odbert utilized this hypothesis to identify personality traits by working through two of the most comprehensive dictionaries of the English language available at the time, and extracting 18, personality-describing words.
From this gigantic list they extracted personality-describing adjectives which they considered to describe observable and relatively permanent traits.
Cattell and his colleagues began a comprehensive program of international research aimed at identifying and mapping out the basic underlying dimensions of personality.
Their goal was to systematically measure the widest possible range of personality concepts, in a belief that "all aspects of human personality which are or have been of importance, interest, or utility have already become recorded in the substance of language" Cattell, R.
They studied personality data from different sources e. He believed that in order to adequately map out personality, one had to utilize L-Data life records or observationQ data information from questionnairesand T-data information from objective tests.
Cattell used the emerging technology of computers to analyze the list of adjectives through the statistical technique of factor analysis, which seeks to identify constructs that underlie observed variables.
He organized the list of adjectives into fewer than items and asked subjects to rate people whom they knew on each of the adjectives on the list an example of L-data because the information was gathered from observers. This allowed Cattell to narrow down to 35 terms.
Ratings of the 35 terms were factor-analyzed, revealing a 12 factor solution. After the 35 terms were made into self-rating items Cattell found that there were 4 additional factors, which he believed consisted of information that could only be provided through self-rating.
This process allowed the use of ratings by observers, questionnaires, and objective measurements of actual behavior.Feb 02, · Raymond B. Cattell: Raymond B.
Cattell, British-born American psychologist, considered to be one of the world’s leading personality theorists. Cattell was educated at the University of London, receiving a B.S. in and a Ph.D. in He taught at the University of Exeter (–32), after which he served as.
The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) is a self-report personality test developed over several decades of empirical research by Raymond B.
Cattell, Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert rutadeltambor.com 16PF provides a measure of normal personality and can also be used by psychologists, and other mental health professionals, as a clinical instrument to help diagnose psychiatric disorders, as well.
The Big The big five personality traits are the best accepted and most commonly used model of personality in academic psychology. The big five come from the statistical study of responses to personality items. Aug 01, · Unlike many other theories of personality, such as psychoanalytic or humanistic theories, the trait approach to personality is focused on differences between rutadeltambor.com combination and interaction of various traits form a personality that is unique to each individual.
Your personality is what makes you, well, you — even if experts can’t settle on an exact definition of the word. Most agree, however, that personality is the overall pattern of how a person feels, thinks and behaves throughout life. Apr 21, · Personality.
Personality defined is 'the complex of all the attributes--behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual' or 'inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.'.