Procedure Scope To all University employees, faculty, staff, and students who operate a University owned, loaned, rented, or leased vehicle for Official University Business. Reason for Policy To ensure that University Vehicles are acquired, assigned, utilized, maintained, and replaced appropriately and all vehicles operated on Official University Business are done so in a safe manner.
Related to enforcement of the armistice, the United States signed the Tripartite Declaration of with Britain and France. In it, they pledged to take action within and outside the United Nations to prevent violations of the frontiers or armistice lines; outlined their commitment to peace and stability in the area and their opposition to the use or threat of force; and reiterated their opposition to the development of an arms race in the region.
Under rapidly changing geopolitical circumstances, US policy in the Middle East was generally geared toward supporting Arab states' independence; aiding the development of oil-producing countries; preventing Soviet influence from gaining a foothold in GreeceTurkeyand Iran ; and preventing an arms race and maintaining a neutral stance in the Arab—Israeli conflict.
US policymakers initially used foreign aid to support these objectives. Foreign policy of US government Eisenhower Administration — Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol meeting Senator Robert KennedyDuring these years of austeritythe United States provided Israel moderate amounts of economic aid, mostly as loans for basic foodstuffs; a far greater share of state income derived from German war reparationswhich were used for domestic development.
France became Israel's main arms supplier at this time and provided Israel with advanced military equipment and technology. This support was seen by Israel to counter the perceived threat from Egypt under President Gamal Abdel Nasser with respect to the " Czech arms deal " of September For differing reasons, France, Israel and Britain colluded to topple Nasser by regaining control of the Suez Canal, following its nationalization, and to occupy parts of western Sinai assuring free passage of shipping in the Gulf of Aqaba.
Afterward, Nasser expressed a desire to establish closer relations with the United States. Eager to increase its influence in the region, and prevent Nasser from going over to the Soviet Bloc, US policy was to remain neutral and not become too closely allied with Israel.
At this time, the only assistance the US provided Israel was food aid. In the early s, the US would begin to sell advanced, but defensive, weapons to Israel, Egypt, and Jordanincluding Hawk anti-aircraft missiles.
Johnson 's presidency, US policy shifted to a whole-hearted, but not unquestioning, support for Israel. Inwhen defecting Iraqi pilot Munir Redfa landed in Israel flying a Soviet-built MiG fighter jet, information on the plane was immediately shared with the United States.
In the lead up to the Six-Day War ofwhile the Johnson Administration was sympathetic to Israel's need to defend itself against foreign attack, the US worried that Israel's response would be disproportionate and potentially destabilizing.
The primary concern of the Johnson Administration was that should war break out in the region, the United States and Soviet Union would be drawn into it.
Intense diplomatic negotiations with the nations in the region and the Soviets, including the first use of the Hotlinefailed to prevent war.
When Israel launched preemptive strikes against the Egyptian Air force, Secretary of State Dean Rusk was disappointed as he felt a diplomatic solution could have been possible.
Israel stated that the Liberty was mistaken as the Egyptian vessel El Quseir, and it was an instance of friendly fire. The US government accepted it as such, although the incident raised much controversy, and some still believe it to be deliberate. Johnson's presidency America's policy took a definite turn in the pro-Israeli direction".
Following the war, the perception in Washington was that many Arab states notably Egypt had permanently drifted toward the Soviets. Inwith strong support from Congress, Johnson approved the sale of Phantom fighters to Israel, establishing the precedent for US support for Israel's qualitative military edge over its neighbors.
However, the US continued to provide military equipment to Arab states such as Lebanon and Saudi Arabiato counter Soviet arms sales in the region. Previously unknown information was subsequently shared with the US.
These designs were also shared with the United States. Rogers formally proposed the Rogers Planwhich called for a day cease-fire and a military standstill zone on each side of the Suez Canal, to calm the ongoing War of Attrition. It was an effort to reach agreement specifically on the framework of UN Resolutionwhich called for Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in and mutual recognition of each state's sovereignty and independence.
Despite the Labor-dominant Alignmentsformal acceptance of UN and "peace for withdrawal" earlier that year, Menachem Begin and the right wing Gahal alliance were adamantly opposed to withdraw from the Palestinian Territories ; the second-largest party in the government resigned on 5 August No breakthrough occurred even after President Sadat of Egypt in unexpectedly expelled Soviet advisers from Egypt, and again signaled to Washington his willingness to negotiate.
National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger 's peace proposal based on "security versus sovereignty": Israel would accept Egyptian sovereignty over all Sinaiwhile Egypt would accept Israeli presence in some of Sinai strategic positions. In OctoberEgypt and Syria, with additional Arab support, attacked Israeli forces occupying their territory since the war, thus starting the Yom Kippur War.
Despite intelligence indicating an attack from Egypt and Syria, Prime Minister Golda Meir made the controversial decision not to launch a pre-emptive strike.
Meir, among other concerns, feared alienating the United States, if Israel was seen as starting another war, as Israel only trusted the United States to come to its aid.
In retrospect, the decision not to strike was probably a sound one.The Pros and Cons on Alternative Fuels Learn more about some of the alternatives to gas-powered vehicles. One of the greatest problems in recent years is the dilemma of alternative forms of energy.
While all of them have various pro's and con's, some are a lot more favorable than other. Butane mixture doesn’t qualify for a credit. A mixture of butane (or other gasoline blendstock) and gasoline is a mixture of two taxable fuels.
Therefore, it isn’t an alternative fuel mixture and doesn’t qualify for the section alternative fuel mixture credit. See Revenue Ruling – Pro and con quotes related to the core question: Can alternative energy effectively replace fossil fuels?
Read sourced pros and cons from top experts, government officials, scholars, pundits, and more. Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports 7th edition of MLA. Writing; Alternative Fuels Essay; Alternative Fuels Essay.
Fuel Energizer. Alternative Fuel, Global Climate Change and the Categorical Imperative While environmental questions are frequently channeled through practical and economic prisms, it is also appropriate to consider our econolgy as a function of morality.
Funeral Protest Pro/Con.