Arrests, Investigative Stops, Consensual Encounters The Three Levels Of Police Encounters Arrests, Investigative Stops, Consensual Encounters In our interactions with law enforcement in Florida, there are three primary levels of encounters from which the legality of a police search or seizure is judged:
More likely than not, whether or not a juvenile is processed into this system is dependent upon the outcome of an encounter with the police.
It is accurate to say that the police serve as the "gatekeepers" to the juvenile justice system—they serve this function in the adult system as well.
The police in turn begin the criminal justice process by making initial decisions about how to handle incidents involving juveniles. Indeed, the role of the police in juvenile justice is an important one. Police officers have many contacts with juveniles that are for the most part unknown.
For this reason, the cases that reach the juvenile courts are only a small fraction of the interactions that police have with juvenile suspects and offenders. In deciding how to handle incidents involving youth, the police have a wide range of responses available to them. This latitude is a necessary element to police work as patrol officers are presented with various and often complex situations Whitaker.
However, in light of this discretion, one should be concerned with how police make decisions involving juveniles as it is an important decision, one that may formally classify juveniles correctly or incorrectly as delinquents and introduce them to the juvenile justice system.
This entry will focus on the police part of juvenile justice and will provide an overview of policing juveniles. It will briefly review the police role in juvenile justice from a historical perspective and it will review the organizational structures existing in policing today to handle juveniles as well as the legal rights of juveniles who are accused of some wrongdoing.
This entry will then review what we know about police-juvenile interactions, including a discussion of how police dispose of their encounters with youth, and what factors shape their decisionmaking.
Finally, ideas for future research on policing juveniles are discussed. Historical overview and organizational structure The focus and purpose of "juvenile justice" has undergone considerable change in the past century. Juvenile justice systems were originally formed to protect youth from the adult systems of justice and to allow discretion in decisionmaking involving youth so that juvenile justice actors could make decisions that were in the best interest of the child.
The ideals behind the formation of the juvenile court, for example, revolved around rehabilitation and helping juveniles who might have problematic home lives or who were psychologically immature or troubled Scott and Grisso. Troubled and delinquent youth were not thought to be fully capable of guilty intentions, rather they were thought to be in need of help and guidance.
However, the idea that juveniles should be handled with "kid gloves" and that they should be protected from the adult system of justice has changed—particularly since the mids. These changes have not, however, had many direct implications for police handling of juveniles; they more often have altered the context of the juvenile courts.
Remarkably, the police role in juvenile justice has remained much the same. One of the central reasons for this has to do with the occupation of policing. Police officers work alone, without direct supervision, and they bear the burden of much discretion.
It is difficult to know what officers do during their shifts and many of their contacts with youth and adults go without documentation in official records. When the creation of juvenile justice systems occurred and this happened sporadically throughout the statespolice handling of juveniles was not of much concern.
Prior to the early twentieth century, police had the authority to arrest juveniles possibly more authority than with adults because juveniles had no procedural protections but juveniles were usually dealt with informally.
That is to say, police officers would warn kids, bring them home to their parents or guardians, or maybe relinquish them to a community agency i. It is important to put this within the context of policing during this period.
Policing in America prior to the s and s was very political. Patrol officers campaigned for local politicians and as a reward were allowed to keep their jobs or to begin a job as a patrol officer.
Patrol officers were politically recruited from the neighborhoods in which they lived, and as a result they knew many of the juveniles living in their assigned areas. Kelling notes that many cases of youth crime and disorder were settled with the end of a nightstick.
The youths' families and their political connections would more than likely influence the outcome of a police-juvenile interaction. These police practices with juveniles and adults came under scrutiny during the Progressive era, which marked a period of professionalization for police.
The professionalization movement in policing occurred in response to a movement to establish professional standards in policing and it occurred as the result of increased technology in America see Walker, The professionalization movement sought, among other things, to eliminate political control of the police, raise personnel standards, appoint qualified chiefs to lead police departments, refocus the police toward fighting crime, and create specialized units to handle special problems.
When policing underwent this reform in the early twentieth century, some of the changes were targeted at policing juveniles.
Police departments began acknowledging the problem of juvenile crime and began to address this issue as part of an overall policing strategy Miller. Moreover, reforms targeted at policing juveniles called on police to prevent juvenile delinquency —rather than merely attempting to make arrests.
Police attention to juvenile crime before the mid-twentieth century was focused on crime prevention rather than on apprehension, deterrence, and punishment. With this new attention to juvenile crime came the hiring of female officers.
Female police officers were introduced to the policing occupation during the early twentieth century and they were initially hired to work with juvenile delinquents and runaways. They were labeled juvenile "specialists" because it was thought that women had a "special capacity for child care" and that handling juveniles was in fact women's work see Walker,pp.
During the early s larger police agencies began instituting some organizational structure to handle juveniles. In the s August Vollmer, the father of police professionalism, who was at the time chief of police in Berkley, California, formed one of the first juvenile bureaus Walker; Bartollas and Miller.Analysis and Application: Police Encounters with Suspects and Evidence David Green CJ Criminal Procedure Prof: Kurt Austin Zimmer May 29, As long as there are people who engage in suspected criminal activity, there will always be the police with whom they will have an rutadeltambor.com, bad or indifferent there will always be these questions that will need to be answered; were the police.
Research on police encounters with non-mentally disordered suspects finds that some characteristics (particularly intoxication and suspect demeanor) significantly influence police behavior (Engel et al., ; Riksheim and Chermak, ). Evidence-Based Decisions on Police Pursuits.
The Officer’s Perspective. By David P. Schultz, Ed Hudak, and Geoffrey P. Alpert, Ph.D. and anecdotal evidence suggest most fleeing suspects will return to safe driving behavior within a relatively short period of time after ground pursuits are Lessons Learned from Critical Encounters.
The research, conducted in the jurisdiction of Rialto, California, with just over 50 frontline officers, compared nearly police shifts in which all police–public encounters were assigned to treatment conditions and an equal number of police shifts to control conditions.
Police And Criminal Evidence Act Words | 6 Pages. create an understanding and response to this statement, I will first explain the legislation that police have to abide by when it comes to the treatment and rights of a suspect before they have turned into the ‘defendant’.
Police and Juveniles To finalize their law enforcement role and ensure that suspects are brought to trial,police engage in interrogation of suspects,collection of physical evi- ity of police encounters with juveniles are in response to minor offenses that involve.