This can apply to words or body language.
Origins[ edit ] "The fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point. Harry Nyquist 's paper, Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed, contains a theoretical section quantifying "intelligence" and the "line speed" at which it can be transmitted by a communication system.
Ralph Hartley 's paper, Transmission of Information, uses the word "information" as a measurable quantity, reflecting the receiver's ability to distinguish one sequence of symbols from any other.
The natural unit of information was therefore the decimal digit, much later renamed the hartley in his honour as a unit or scale or measure of information. Alan Turing in used similar ideas as part of the statistical analysis Oral communication theory the breaking of the German second world war Enigma ciphers.
The main landmark event that opened the way to the development of communication theory was the publication of an article by Claude Shannon in the Bell System Technical Journal in July and October under the title " A Mathematical Theory of Communication ".
He used also tools in probability theorydeveloped by Norbert Wiener. They marked the nascent stages of applied communication theory at that time. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing the field of information theory.
Inin a declassified version of his wartime work on the mathematical theory of cryptography " Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems "he proved that all theoretically unbreakable ciphers must have the same requirements as the one-time pad.
He is also credited with the introduction of sampling theorywhich is concerned with representing a continuous-time signal from a uniform discrete set of samples.
This theory was essential in enabling telecommunications to move from analog to digital transmissions systems in the s and later. InShannon made his fundamental contribution to natural language processing and computational linguistics with his article "Prediction and Entropy of Printed English"providing a clear quantifiable link between cultural practice and probabilistic cognition.
Models of communication[ edit ] Main article: Models of communication The studies on information theory by Claude Elwood Shannon, Warren Weaver and others, prompted research on new models of communication from other scientific perspectives like psychology and sociology.
In science, a model is a structure that represents a theory. They developed a model of communication which was intended to assist in developing a mathematical theory of communication. Shannon and Weaver's work proved valuable for communication engineers in dealing with such issues as the capacity of various communication channels in 'bits per second'.
It contributed to computer science. It led to very useful work on redundancy in language. And in making 'information' 'measurable' it gave birth to the mathematical study of 'information theory' — Elements of communication[ edit ] Basic elements of communication made the object of study of the communication theory: Shannon calls this element the "information source", which "produces a message or sequence of messages to be communicated to the receiving terminal.
Shannon calls this element the "transmitter", which "operates on the message in some way to produce a signal suitable for transmission over the channel.
For Shannon, the channel is "merely the medium used to transmit the signal from transmitter to receiver. For Shannon, the receiver "performs the inverse operation of that done by the transmitter, reconstructing the message from the signal. For Shannon, the destination is "the person or thing for whom the message is intended".
The message is a conceptinformation, communication, or statement that is sent in a verbal, written, recorded, or visual form to the recipient.Types of Communication.
Oral Communication: A communication which happens through word of mouth, spoken words, conversations and also any messages or information are shared or exchanged between one another through speech or word of mouth is called oral communication.
Example: Public speech, News reading, . Page 1 of 6 Theories in Developing Oral Communication for Specific Learner Group Marham Jupri Hadi1 Mataram Nahdlatul Wathan .
Oral Communication is the process of verbally transmitting information and ideas from one individual or group to another. Types of oral communication include formal communication, such as classroom lectures, speeches and meeting presentations; and informal communication, such as casual phone or dinner table conversations.
Through a review of literature, this paper focuses on the development of a framework for the teaching of functional communication skills in grades six through nine. Following the introduction, the first section examines the context, purpose, and ability dimensions of oral communication as well as a model that combines all of these elements.
Most relevant theories to develop oral communication Being well informed about the characteristics of the learners will certainly beneficial to identify what language learning theories or techniques would be most relevant to the development of their oral communication skills.
Oral communication is the process of verbally transmitting information and ideas from one individual or group to another. Oral communication can be either formal or informal.