Paul Rogers 5 November In an age of climate change and deepening inequality, the spreading Naxalite insurgency in India - not al-Qaida - may show the world its future. This is particularly true of the arc of insecurity that stretches from the middle east through to southwest Asia, where - from Afghanistan and Pakistan to Israel-Palestine and Iran - the reality and potential of violence have hardly been diminished as a result of the change of administration. Moreover, alongside the high-intensity conflicts where Washington is directly or by proxy involved in this region, there are other slow-burn insurgencies that often receive less attention than they deserve. The persistent rebellion in India of the Maoist guerrilla movement known as the Naxalites is one such.
Ancient Athens[ edit ] Athenian democracy developed in the 6th century BC out of what was then called isonomia equality of law and political rights. Sortition was then the principal way of achieving this fairness.
It was utilized to pick most  of the magistrates for their governing committees, and for their juries typically of men. Aristotle relates equality and democracy: Democracy arose from the idea that those who are equal in any respect are equal absolutely.
All are alike free, therefore they claim that all are free absolutely The next is when the democrats, on the grounds that they are all equal, claim equal participation in everything. Athenian democracy was characterised by being run by the "many" the ordinary people who were allotted to the committees which ran government.
Thucydides has Pericles make this point in his Funeral Oration: According to the author Mogens Herman Hansen the citizen's court was superior to the assembly because the allotted members swore an oath which ordinary citizens in the assembly did not and therefore the court could annul the decisions of the assembly.
Both Aristotle  and Herodotus one of the earliest writers on democracy emphasize selection by lot as a test of democracy, "The rule of the people has the fairest name of all, equality isonomiaand does none of the things that a monarch does. The lot determines offices, power is held accountable, and deliberation is conducted in public.
Zeus got the sky, Poseidon the sea, and Hades the underworld. In Athens, to be eligible to be chosen by lot, citizens self-selected themselves into the available pool, then lotteries in the kleroteria machines. The magistracies assigned by lot generally had terms of service of 1 year.
A citizen could not hold any particular magistracy more than once in his lifetime, but could hold other magistracies. All male citizens over 30 years of age, who were not disenfranchised by atimiawere eligible.
Those selected through lot underwent examination called dokimasia in order to avoid incompetent officials.
Rarely were selected citizens discarded. Magistrates appointed by lot had to render account of their time in office upon their leave, called euthynai. However, any citizen could request the suspension of a magistrate with due reason. Voter and candidate eligibility probably included property owners, councilors, guild members, and perhaps, at times, artisans.
The Doge of Venice was determined through a complex process of nomination, voting and sortition. Lot was used in the Venetian system only in order to select members of the committees that served to nominate candidates for the Great Council.
A combination of election and lot was used in this multi-stage process. Lot was not used alone to select magistrates, unlike in Florence and Athens. The use of lot to select nominators made it more difficult for political sects to exert power, and discouraged campaigning.
Top magistracies generally still remained in the control of elite families. These men then had their names deposited into a sack, and a lottery draw determined who would get magistracy positions. The scrutiny was gradually opened up to minor guilds, reaching the greatest level of Renaissance citizen participation in — In Florence, lot was used to select magistrates and members of the Signoria during republican periods.
Florence utilized a combination of lot and scrutiny by the people, set forth by the ordinances of The nominatori were thereafter chosen by lot from among the members of the Great Council, indicating a decline in aristocratic power.
As an example, Vancouver council initiated a citizens' assembly that met in —15 in order to assist in city planning.
In public decision-making, individuals are often determined by allotment if other forms of selection such as election fail to achieve a result.Add this topic to your myFT Digest for news straight to your inbox.
The progress seen in the late 20th century has stalled in the 21st. Even though around 40% of the world’s population, more people than ever before, live . Debating the issues: China, Russia, Iran, National Security, Defense, War & Peace, International Relations & U.S.
Politics. Realism is our guide. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from rutadeltambor.com The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay.
Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate. Technology And The 21st Century - 21st century learning is bold, flexible, creative, challenging, and complex; it takes into account the rapidly changing world filled with new problems and new possibilities (21stcenturyschools, ).