Discussion of the aim of education is a function of the philosophy of education or 'educational theory'. The different understandings of education cultivate different avenues of human possibility. The root of the word 'education' is derived from the Latin 'e-ducare' literally meaning to 'lead forth' or bring out something which is potentially present.
Demand characteristics and investigator effects Data analysis Measures of central tendency and of dispersion Correlation coefficients Presentation and interpretation of quantitative data Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data Presentation of qualitative data However, this is not a logical teaching order so although this booklet will cover all the stuff mentioned above it will follow a different sequence and hopefully one more similar to the route taken in class.
Ethical issues in Psychological research Ethics are the moral codes laid down by professional bodies to ensure that their members or representatives adhere to certain standards of behaviour. All scientific bodies have such codes but those in psychology are particularly important because of the subject matter of the topic.
Psychology is unlike most other subject areas in that its subject matter is entirely human or animal. Because of this practically all research involves living things that can be caused physical or psychological harm. Psychological research also needs to consider the wider community.
Some research, for example studies on IQ, have been used to discriminate against different races or ethnic groups. The knowledge gained from psychological research can be exploited by people or groups to gain an advantage over others.
Protecting the individual in psychological research Many of the ideas mentioned in this section will be raised as we cover other topics later in the year and particularly in the last topic on social influence.
Deception Protection of participants from physical and psychological harm The right to withdraw The right to withdraw data Confidentiality and Privacy We shall then consider ways of determining whether or not studies should take place, and strategies for minimising risks if they do.
To protect the well being, health and dignity of participants in psychological research. Did what we learn justify these methods?
Deception Examples of studies involving deception: Asch, Milgram, Moscovici Deception involves either concealing the real intention of a study from participants or taking steps to mislead them at the outset.
All of the examples above used the second ploy, deliberately lying to participants about the genuine reason for a study.
Two of them also used stooges or confederates people pretending to be participants who are really part of the experimental set up. The use of stooges always means deception has been used. However, is deception necessary? The researchers above would all argue that their experiments could not have taken place without it.
When using the BEM sex role inventory to test gender, telling male participants in advance that you are trying to find how masculine or feminine they are will almost certainly influence the way they respond to the questionnaire! Baumrind on the other hand argues that deception is always wrong since it prevents informed consent see belowresearchers have an obligation to protect their participants see below and psychologists should be seen as professional and therefore trustworthy.
Debriefing It is really a matter of common courtesy to debrief your participants at the end of any procedure and inform them of the point of the research.About the Author. Halvor Nordby (b) graduated with a rutadeltambor.com from the University of Oxford in , and he is now working as a professor at Lillehammer University College and the University of Oslo.
Homepage: rutadeltambor.com HOLISTIC EDUCATION: A NEW PARADIGM FOR TEACHING. Aim of Education: Personality Integration, Creative Intelligence and Enlightenment or 'Happiness'. Today the significance of designing, producing and implementing of a project is increasing day by day both in industry and in universities.
Moreover, entrepreneurship is also attracting more attention than ever as a rapidly growing and constantly changing discipline. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.
Kohlberg began work on this topic while a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago  in and expanded upon the theory throughout his life.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
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